2. Biblical Leadership
2.1.1. Pastoral Development
2.1.2. Pastoral Counseling
2.1.3. Pastoral Administration
2.1.4. Mission Leaders
2.1.5. The Leadership Challenge
2.1.6. The word "leader" is found and used in the New Testament
2.1.7. Define Your Personal Leadership
3. Areas of Leadership Responsibility
5. Psycho- cultural
6. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP FROM A CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE
In this paper we consider a model of leadership in organizations. The role of leadership we focus on is that of helping coordinate the actions of the die rent members of an organization. The role of the leader is to give a sense of direction for the organization. The leader evaluates the environment in which the organization operates and deter- mines the best strategy adapted to that environment. The leader’s dilemma is that he would like to base the organization’s focus (or mission) on all the relevant information about the environment available to him. But, since information about the environment only trickles in over time, the leader may then be led to revise the organizations direction as new information becomes available. His desire to modify the direction of the organization over time thus undermines his ability to coordinate the actions of the other members of the organization. In other words, the essence of the leadership problem in our model is to reconcile the adaptation to a changing environment. This requires information acquisition and revision of the organization’s strategy in response to new information.and coordination of the actions of the other members of the organization. Thus, the main question we are interested in here, is determining which attributes of a leader are most desirable in balancing the need for adaptation with coordination. Our leadership problem can be captured in a simple setup involving four stages. In the organization is likely to be in. Based on that signal the leader cans de.ne a mission or overall strategy for the organization. In a second stage, the other members of the organization .the follower’s .decide how closely they want to stick to the leader’s strategy. They may not be inclined to blindly follow the leader’s proposed strategy because they also observe signals about the state of nature, and they may come up with deferent forecasts of what the ultimate direction for the organization will be. In a third stage the leader receives a second signal. This signal could be an aggregate of the signals of the followers or simply new information that becomes available.
1. Biblical Leadership
Just as each of us has one body with many members, and these members do not all have the same function, so in Christ we who are many form one body, and each member belongs to all the others. We have different gifts, according to the grace given us. If a man's gift is prophesying, let him use it in proportion to his faith. If it is serving, let him serve; if it is teaching, let him teach; if it is encouraging, let him encourage; if it is contributing to the needs of others, let him give generously; if it is leadership, let him govern diligently; if it is showing mercy, let him do it cheerfully." (Romans 12:4-8)
This gift has two areas of application:
1. Individual: Encouraging the personal and spiritual growth of each of our people, including helping them develop their spiritual gifts and skills.
2. Corporate: Encouraging the group dynamics of spiritual growth in our communities and teams. This involves functions such as:
o Small-group Bible studies
o Marriage and family seminars
o Community life dynamics
o Developing interpersonal relationship skills
o Resolving disagreements and conflicts
o Body ministry - exercising spiritual gifts, etc
These people are more specialized and have more developed counseling skills than the Pastoral Development people. They deal with counseling needs such as:
· Stress and Burnout
· Cross-cultural pastoral care
· Family problems
· Culture Shock, reverse culture shock, re-entry
Some missionaries returning from service in traumatic situations need debriefing by specially trained counselors. Also, because of the breakdown of relationships in society with resulting problems such as child abuse, homosexual tendencies, etc, the number of missionaries with these needs is increasing. So some counselors need to be specially trained to cope with these dysfunctional needs that sometimes arise. But where possible, people with serious needs like these would best be referred to specialists outside the mission.
There seems to be two types of administrators, project oriented ones or people oriented ones. Pastoral administrators must be people oriented. These are people that generally run our Personnel Departments. They deal with such things as:
· Orientation of new staff
· In-service training
· Helping staff raise financial support
· Helping staff find the right job, conducting regular interviews etc
The above ministries will be a major factor in developing the love and unity that Jesus said was a requirement for effective missions, (John13:35 & 17:20-23). They come under the general heading of the second commandment - to love one another. A leader may not have pastoral gifting, but he (or she) cannot abdicate from the second commandment, otherwise he may come under the judgments outlined in Ezekiel 34.
Every mission leader needs to be committed to the following aspects of pastoral ministry:
1. Personally growing in ability to develop the people he leads. For many, this will mean that the pastoral development emphasis (outlined above) needs to be incorporated more into their understanding of leadership. Cf: Ephesians 4:12
2. Although he may not be specifically gifted pastorally, he must ensure that the three functions of pastoral care (above) are taking place. He can delegate them, but not abdicate from them.
3. That pastoral gifting is a vital part of every leadership team. He must ensure that a pastorally gifted person is on his team.
The Leadership Challenge
Too often people confuse a strong-willed personality as an effective leader, leadership is not being strong-willed, rather having a strong sense of purpose that is centered upon God. The church of our Lord needs leaders, not petty instigators. There are too many churches that substitute a petty person for a godly person and see no distinction, because the people who put them in power do not know the difference.
The word "leader" is found and used in the New Testament.
Fitch cops to the "notable exceptions" of Heb 13: 17, 24 (forgetting vs. 7, though!)... But then says that other than that, leadership is about Diakonia, or service/servants in the NT. I agree that a biblical model of leadership includes servant hood, but it goes beyond that. Far beyond.
The NT on this reading appears to carefully avoid the models of authority available in surrounding society for defining leadership in the church." However, this isn't necessarily true. One of the most common words for leader in the NT, presbyters, and often translated "elder" could and did refer to: 1. members of the great council or Sanhedrin. 2. Those in separate cities managing public affairs and administering justice. 3. Among the Christians, those who presided over the assemblies (or churches). The NT uses the term bishop, elders, and presbyters interchangeably. (Here) It's clear that when describing leadership in the Church, the most common terms were also used of leaders in Judaism (both nationally and in the synagogues) as well as the culture around them.
Further, the command was to "appoint elders (presbyters) in every city." (Titus 1:5) Why? That they might help lead and decide the affairs of the church- 1 Timothy 5:17 -- "Let the elders (PRESBUTEROS) who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine." Another common phrase which carried connotations of leadership in the NT was episcopes, often translated "bishop." What were the episcopes to do? Among other things "Take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care for the church of God which he obtained with the blood of his own Son."- Acts 20:28
It may be true that the word "leader" is found in only a few places in the NT in relationship to the Church- But when you take the weight and context/usage of the words presbyters and episcopes along with passages like Heb 13:7, 17, 24 and Gal 2:2, it's clear that there were leaders in the church, and though they may have exercised a leadership that felt different than the "lord it over you" kind Jesus warned us of, it wasn't completely different than leadership outside the church. There were still people appointed to responsibility, they still discerned and decided (Gal 2:2-3) and helped lead the church (Acts 15:22).
2.Define Your Personal Leadership
Personal leaders have a game plan for their life. Call it what you will…personal mission statement, life strategic plan, setting of goals or a personal punch list…it is all about giving your life direction or establishing a clear path for your life. Unfortunately most people live their lives like a raft floating in the ocean. They bob up and down, left and right, over and under, depending on the tempest of the sea. They become victims of circumstances and allow time to make decisions they are unwilling to make for themselves. Personal leaders are absolutely convinced they have a great degree of control over their own outcomes and circumstances. They are not about to leave their future in the hands of “time and chance”. The sea change they look forward to is the one that occurs when they have learned something new and decide to now make it a part of their life. Just like an athlete or their team needs a game plan to excel, so does a personal leader. A mental break-through comes when we take the vague ideas and goals rolling around in our head and put them on paper as a personal mission statement! When done correctly and reviewed often it has the potential to magnify our focus and increase our desire for achievement at a higher level. In discussing goals Gary Wills reminds us that leadership and followership are void without a third element. He writes, “But the discussion cannot get far without a third thing – the goal.” The goal is the cement that holds the leader/follower relationship together and this includes the way we relate to our own hearts and minds. Remember, as personal leaders we are internally both followers and leaders at the same time!
Most personal leaders realize and accept the fact that there is a spiritual element to life. They may not totally understand it or always sense it but they know it is there. I know the discussion of spirituality is not considered vogue or “politically correct” in some circles. That is too bad and their personal loss. Respected author Peter Block reminds us that, “Spirituality is the process of living out a set of deeply held personal values, of honoring forces or a presence greater than ourselves. It expresses our desire to find meaning in, and to treat as an offering what we do”. This spiritual element provides a number of positive characteristics that cannot be found or nurtured anywhere else. The personal leader knows the purpose of their existence must go far beyond the pursuit of the “whoever dies with the most toys wins” philosophy of our modern society. They know that every day of life is a precious gift and an endowment to become something even better. This spiritual element also provides them a mental toughness to endure the difficult periods of their life. They come to realize that sad or tragic things also happen for a purpose even if we do not yet understand exactly what that purpose is.
Another characteristic of the spiritual element for a personal leader is accepting risk and responsibility. Personal leadership is not about comfort zones or the status quo, it is about the passion for continual growth and improvement. Every positive and healthy change that has ever occurred in human civilization has only come about by great struggle and by rejecting the way things are as “good enough”. Personal leaders accept the challenge to make things better…to inspire others to become better…to win! In contrast, most folks will accept only a very limited degree of risk or accountability. Therefore they don’t seek to become winners; they just try not to lose! John Gardner reminds us that, “Most people in most organizations most of the time are more stale than they know, more bored than they care to admit. All too often it is because they have not been encouraged to use their own initiative and powers of decision. And if they are not expected to use their decision-making powers, they are off the hook of responsibility”. Personal leadership is the opposite of this common workplace dilemma. It is all about initiative, decision-making and responsibility.
Areas of Leadership Responsibility
Christian leaders have to function in a number of areas, and different leaders will perform better in some areas than others. Leaders should appraise their own strengths and weaknesses, not hesitating to get help in their weak areas when possible. At the same time, all leaders need to be ready in principle to perform in all of these areas on occasion.
Biblical leadership includes provision. David says, "The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want." (Ps. 23:1) Leaders are responsible to see that those in their charge are able to access provision for their spiritual and personal well-being and development. Note this does not mean leaders must provide all nourishment themselves, though they will naturally provide much of it. Followers are responsible to go and take available provision for themselves provided leaders have shown them where and how to take advantage of a given resource. Here analogies like that used by Paul in 1 Thess. 2, (of a mother nursing her baby) break down. Paul was primarily pointing to his feeling of love for the Thessalonians, not how dependent they should be. Part of equipping young Christians is teaching them how to go feed them.
Biblical leadership includes protection from danger. David says "Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evil, for you are with me." (Ps. 23:4) Shepherds are useful for protecting their flocks from wolves. While we are never called to eliminate all dangers from the church, a well-led church is a generally secure place to grow, compared to the world. Leaders should strive to see that the church or ministry is relatively free of wild doctrinal aberrations, dangerous, menacing people, or disruptions that make body life impossible. Leaders must weigh how much freedom to leave and how much control to exercise. After all, young Christians need exposure to a wide range of viewpoints as well as problematic people and situations. This is real life! But if dangers within or from outside the church begin to threaten their well-being, leaders should act to protect. People sometimes even need to be protected from the damage they may do to themselves. Protection could involve practicing church discipline, personal counseling, or other kinds of oversight.
Biblical leadership includes direction. David says, "He makes me lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside quiet waters... He guides me in the paths of righteousness." (Ps. 23:2, 3) The world assumes people will automatically know the best direction based on following their feelings. God rejects this idea, and instead advances the idea of leadership and authority. In his view, we often need outside direction on which way to go. Aside from what believers can learn directly from God's word, or what they hear from his inner promptings, believers may at times need the wisdom of fellow Christians. While any Christian may be used to give direction to another, godly leaders are particularly responsible for the direction of the church, and are often called on to give direction to members. Certainly, a group or ministry needs leaders to suggest, or even at times to insist, on a particular direction in the operation of that ministry. Again, directing does not suggest that followers cannot or should not develop their own ability to apply truth to their lives in a wise way. Therefore, the godly leader will at times withhold her counsel and call on members to decide for them. Only when people go wrong some of the time will they develop the wisdom to avoid wrong in the future. Therefore, no leader should seek to direct every aspect of a given ministry, let alone the lives of those involved.
David says, "Thy rod and Thy staff, they comfort me." (Ps. 23:4) The rod and staff were used to poke and swat sheep so they keep moving in the right direction, so the analogy breaks down a bit. People are far more advanced than sheep, and require more sophisticated forms of motivation. But we see repeated examples in the Bible of leaders awakening motivation in their people. Often, God sends leaders to impart vision to his people, and to bestow the gift of motivation. Note that motivating people is completely different from the idea of issuing imperatives, or instructions. While these may be appropriate at times, here we refer to leaders behaving in such a way that others feel a sense of excitement or need to act in a certain direction. Effective leaders are able to agitate and excite people who were formerly dull, listless, apathetic and bored. Leaders can develop and impart a vision of godly living and accomplishment that people adopt as their own. After people act, good leaders know how to encourage more of the same through positive words.
3. Theology 
The biggest problem with many of us is that we are soft from too much success. We are like a child riding a bike on training wheels who thinks he has actually learned to ride. His parents warn him, "It's a little harder when you take the wheels off," but until you actually do take them off, the kid continues to enjoy a false sense of mastery. Once the wheels come off, the child may have to endure a few nasty crackups that could lead to tears, and even a refusal to ride any more. But without removing the wheels, he will never learn to ride.
In our training, failure has played a prominent role, and in fact a crucial role that success never could have played. We have failed at more ministry attempts than most in our church have ever tried! Bible studies, personal evangelism, discipleship, and overall fellowship direction are all venues where we have tasted deeply of failure, often with embarrassment and disgrace. While we still don't like to fail, we increasingly realize that nothing teaches us more than our failures.
From failure we learn what works Biblical guidance is important in ministry, but we are still left to apply biblical teaching in area after area, and these are often judgment calls requiring wisdom and experience. Success in ministry can often lead to the wrong conclusions. We may conclude that because of our success, our ministry methods must be on a especially correct. Meanwhile, our success may be the result of something completely different. Our attribution of success to our superior methods is wrong, but we usually have no way of knowing that until we fail using those same "miracle methods." The experience of failure throws us into state of amazement and disillusionment, and this confused state of mind is exactly what God needs to bring us out of our ego-driven paradigm. Only then can we listen to new ideas, new ways of explaining past success, and engage in original thinking for the future.
Through failure we learn dependence (2 Cor 11:30-33): At the heart of our carnality in leadership is often a self-sufficient attitude. Our shortchanged prayer life is a warning signal, but we find that easy to ignore. Failure is much harder to ignore. As we strike off in first one direction and then another, failing at each turn, God is able to corner us into conclusions we weren't willing to look at before. A growing sense of ineptitude at the deepest level begins to strike a note of caution in all we do. Ironically, this sense of helplessness grows at the same time we know we are increasing our competence in the basic skills of ministry. Such an inner tension is exactly what God uses to convince us that he alone can bring us to ultimate spiritual success.
Through failure we deepen our discernment: One of our problems in ministry that we may be driving for the wrong goals. We often assume that things which bring more results, like greater numbers, are the will of God. We may think certain types of people are best suited to lead. These assumptions may be partly right, but they often overlook important exceptions that could lead to unfairness or corruption in the church. God often shows us through failure that we are looking at things superficially and that we need goals more in harmony with the deeper picture. We may realize that our pragmatism leads to outward results without inward spiritual reality. At other times, we may see that our super-spirituality has led us to ignore the plain facts of our situation. After training in failure, some things that used to impress us as guaranteed to succeed now remind us of times when similar things or people were great disappointments. Our pronouncements become less dogmatic, and more humble. At the same time, we may have viewed certain problems as negative, but not really dangerous, until one of those problems rose up and confronted us with outright failure because we ignored it. We cannot downplay such problems in the future. Therefore, a leader trained by failure may become concerned about things that seem less important to others.
Through failure we learn how to minister under grace: Personal sin often teaches us the urgency of clinging to the grace of God in our lives. In the same way, failure in ministry teaches us how urgent it is that we learn to appreciate and appropriate God's grace in a living way. Most of us come into ministry feeling on some level that the work depends on our competence and personal charisma, and this becomes confusing, because on some level our gifts and abilities are instrumental. God may have to work with us for years to bring us to the place where we understand in our heart how it can be possible that my abilities matter, and yet take no sense of egotism from that fact. Most young ministers insist on taking their identity from their ministry results. Usually, only profound failure will convince us that "apart from the vine we can do nothing," and yet we need to strive all the harder. (I Cor 15:10) This is the paradoxical outlook of the mature worker--an outlook only accessible through a combination of success and failure.
Through failure we develop deep spiritual convictions about ministry: Most of us become excited about doing ministry because of the thrilling experiences we have while doing it. Such profound thrills are hard to find apart from illicit drugs, romance, or materialistic advancement. On one level, God must approve of our feeling good from ministry victory, because he says we will be more "blessed" if we serve. (John 13:17) But feeling pleasure is not the proper foundational motive for serving God. We must learn to do it because God wills it, even if no one else does it, even if we don't succeed at it, and even if it brings us pain and frustration. (1 Cor. 4:2 note, "trustworthy" not "successful") Failure separates the quitters from the servants. Failure is a painful experience that puts the question squarely: Am I going to continue doing something that often brings me pain? God also uses other painful experiences to put this question, such as betrayal by friends, suspicions, lack of appreciation, and accusations from our people, but failure seems to be the supreme negative experience. God wants to know whether we are prepared to serve in failure, or only in success? (II Tim 4:3) Isaiah's call in Is. 6:8-13 basically promised a ministry characterized by failure throughout. But Isaiah was willing and faithful to that calling. God will test each minister on this point (often though failure) to purify our motives.
Leaders thus broken through failure become suitable tools in the hands of the Lord. But unbroken leaders pose a threat to the health and spirituality of the church. Leaders accustomed to nothing but success becomes, they, hard to lead. They are always convinced they are right, and will fight to preserve their base as though their self-worth depended on it, which it often does. In their dread of failure, they may become downright unethical and manipulative. They find it hard to listen to the wisdom of others because they can't help but observe that their own ideas seem to be working perfectly well. Such unbroken leaders not only fear failure in them, but also in others. They may become unwilling to let others have the chance to fail, and this leads to poor delegation in discipleship. When success becomes the be-all and end-all in ministry, it is an idol that God must throw down. Note that failure may come in an area other than our main ministry, but it will surely come.
Nothing would advance most of us more than getting some good failure under our belts! It isn't that bad once you get used to it, and the fruit over the long haul is well worth the pain. Consider how fear of failure can affect the church:
Home church leaders who suffer from excessive fear of failure are reluctant to plant new churches. They know the mother church works, so why take risks with an unproven plant? The result is tardy planting or no planting, both of which retard the growth of the church and stifle the development of young leaders.
Young leaders are hardly ever as competent as older ones, and history shows they are more likely to fail. But this observation begs the question: Is such failure necessarily a bad thing? We argue that it need not be bad, especially when our new leaders have been well-trained in their view of failure. The experience of failure is always a crisis, since Satan will move in and suggest God let them down, or that they are unworthy for such work. But as discussed above, failure becomes the occasion for a new questioning of motives and deepening of commitment if properly understood. We should be actively preparing our disciples for failure as well as for success.
Those who dread failure tend toward a conservatism that seeks to protect the existing ministry rather than to open new ministry. When the church becomes conservative and self-protective, it loses the offensive spirit needed in spiritual war. We find ourselves unable to penetrate tough sectors of the non Christian community.
If you suffer from fear of failure, ask yourself, "What is the worst thing that can happen to me if I fail?" Does failure in ministry really endanger our lives, or only our egos? The ego-centered minister dreads failure mainly because he will have to admit it to colleagues or others he hopes to impress. Just imagining he admitting defeat can send the ego-driven leader into a panic of self-protection. But God calls us to deny self and serve in ministry, not to glorify ourselves through it. Mentally practice shrugging your shoulders before colleagues and saying, "Yeah, that didn't work out, but at least we tried" and don't forget to add, "I guess we'd better try again!" The only defense you need is, "I felt like I did my best."
The unfolding storyline of the Bible, through its narrative examples, prophetic oracles, apostolic instructions, and divine admonitions, provides the necessary contours for discerning a biblical theology of leadership. The whole drama of redemption can be viewed in terms of God’s design for human leadership. God created humanity to serve as leaders over his creation. Adam brought about the fall when he failed to lead properly, and the result of the fall was an abdication of leadership from man to Satan. God sent his only Son as a man to forever restore proper leadership over God’s creation to a glorified human race over which he is the head. From Eden to Egypt to Canaan to Exile to Judea to the ends of the earth to the recreation of the world, proper leadership is characterized by four important qualities. First, it is a derivative leadership that originates from, reflects, and represents the leadership of God. Second, it is a leadership marked by obedience to God. Third, it is a leadership distinguished by love for those who are led. And finally, it is a leadership characterized by order, harmony, and wholeness.
4. Psycho- cultural
Congregations that exist in culturally diverse communities have two options before them. They can interact with the community as mono-cultural organizations serving in a multi-ethnic context or they can embrace the basic convictions of multi-culturalism.1 The multi-cultural Christian community enacts respect for the validity of cultural difference and accepts the need for both dominant and minority cultures to be open to adjustment through dynamic interaction. In addition, such communities recognize the need for ethnic minorities to maintain a sense of cultural identity as a means of validating their voice in inter-cultural dialogue. These multi-cultural congregations desire to be a place where the vision of an inclusive God can be lived out in practical reality to the best of their God-given understanding and ability.
Christian congregations, functioning in multi-ethnic environments, embrace the diversity of cultures in the spirit of an inclusive God – thereby becoming multi-cultural congregations. But what are the requirements for leadership in such faith communities? What self-awareness concerning multi-cultural interaction is necessary in such leaders?
This article reviews leadership models presented in business and educational literature. Also discussed are models of leadership in the unique environment of the Christian faith community. In particular, Christian leadership models suggested by multi-cultural practitioners are examined. These perspectives aid in building a profile of multi-cultural leaders by outlining the cognitive processes, attitudes, skills, and practices necessary for the development and on-going maintenance of multi-cultural congregations.
The term "leaders" refers to those persons who have oversight of the policies and practices that develop and sustain the vision and goals of a local congregation. The terms includes both ordained pastoral leaders and the elected and informal leaders who take on this responsibility. It is my assertion that leaders in multi-cultural congregations need to reflect an awareness of their role that is rooted in a view of God as one who welcomes all persons, regardless of their cultural frameworks. This perspective is developed through personal inter-cultural experience and intentional skill acquisition.
A typical definition of leadership suggests leaders to be people with "the capacity to influence the thoughts, behaviours and/or feelings of others" (Gardner in Foster 1997, 116). "Capacity" can refer to an ability to influence, but it also implies the notion of substance or volume as in a collection of attitudes, abilities, and skills. In this article I will use this collective sense when discussing a leader’s capacity to influence. Influencing can involve both direct means (e.g. teaching, group skills) as well as indirect means (e.g. attitudes, personal relations). Both direct and indirect means are necessary to stimulate leaders, at all levels of their being (cognitive, affective, physical), to achieve developmental goals.
Several leadership approaches will be discussed in this article and a variety of terms are employed that reflect both direct and indirect means of influencing people. Envisioningrefers to the leader’s ability to see a clear picture of a possible future. Embedding refers to the means by which leaders firmly fix the values and practices that they perceive are appropriate to the organization’s goals. Embodying refers to the ability of leaders to personally live out the values and practices that they espouse. Enabling refers to the leader’s ability to create an environment in which employees or members feel able to take the steps necessary to act upon the values and practices of the organization. Empoweringrefers to the leader’s ability to make resources available to employees or members and to encourage them to make autonomous decisions on the basis of those resources.Embracing is understood in the manner articulated by Miroslav Volf and expanded upon by Charles Foster, as that movement of different peoples who desire "to be close to others without losing the integrity of their own identities" (Foster 1997, 1).
II. Leadership Theory
A. Leaders Embed and Manage Organizational Culture
The first leadership model is that of Edgar Schein, as presented in Organizational Culture and Leadership (1985).2 Schein describes organizational culture as that grouping of values and practices that shape the character of an organization, and explains this model by citing examples from business firms that he has studied. He outlines the processes by which culture is initiated and developed, and the role of leaders in embedding, or fixing culture, and managing culture-change.3
On the basis of extensive research into American and multi-national business organizations, Schein discusses the role of the leader, first, in starting companies, and subsequently in embedding values and practices into the operative culture of an organization by means of various mechanisms. Some of these embedding mechanisms are conscious, deliberate actions, while others are unconscious and may be unintended (Schein, 1985, 223). On the basis of his research, Schein outlines five "culture-embedding" mechanisms that shape an organization:
what leaders pay attention to and control;
how leaders react to critical incidents and crises;
deliberate role modelling and coaching;
criteria for allocation of rewards and status;
criteria for leadership selection and recruitment (Schein, 1985, 224-225).
In summarizing his thoughts on culture-embedding, Schein notes that "a dynamic analysis of organizational culture makes it clear that leadership is intertwined with culture formation, evolution, transformation, and destruction" (Schein 1985, 316).
Second, in discussing the management of culture-change, Schein suggests that "the unique and essential function of leadership is the manipulation of culture" (Schein 1985, 317). By manipulation Schein understands the means, both direct and indirect, by which a leader embeds particular values and practices in an organization. Leaders need to be able to externalize their own assumptions and values in a clear manner and "to embed them gradually and consistently into the mission, goals, structures and working procedures of the group" (Schein 1985, 317). With regard to managing change in organizational culture, Schein speaks of "cognitive redefinition" (Schein 1985, 324). If an existing organization requires significant change to continue to meet its present mission, or to move towards a new raison d’être, leaders must possess the ability to induce this redefinition by articulating and winning support for new visions and concepts. It is not just the formal leadership, however, that will take change forward. Schein draws upon his own research in process consultation and group dynamics to conclude that leaders "must recognize that in the end, cognitive redefinition must occur inside the heads of many members of the organization and that will happen only if they are actively involved in the process" (Schein 1985, 325).
In conclusion, Schein wonders about the leadership development process:
If leadership is culture management, do we develop in our leaders the emotional strength, depth of vision and capacity for self-insight and objectivity that are necessary for culture to be managed? (Schein 1985, 326)
Schein’s points in regard to embedding culture are of particular interest for leaders in multi-cultural congregations. The vision of a multi-cultural faith community goes against the conventional wisdom of many evangelical denominations. The "church-growth," homogeneous model has been accepted for so long that other ways of conceiving the church have become almost heretical. Leaders need to be confident about the "rightness" of their approach, as well as having the ability to clearly articulate both theory and practice — so as to "embed," through practical mechanisms, a multi-cultural culture: a new way of seeing, being and doing church.
Managing culture-change, as Schein has outlined, is a significant skill since many leaders are faced with the need to move toward the multi-cultural model just to survive. As urban areas learn to deal with the reality of changing population demographics, so existing mono-cultural congregations inevitably become multi-ethnic or must eventually close their doors. Existing congregations have to go through a redefinition of their identity, vision, and goals to begin to function multi-culturally. Wise leader will manage this "culture-change" through a group consultation process so as to bring as many people into the new configuration as possible.
Schein’s concluding question about leadership development is equally valid for the multi-cultural congregation. Are we developing leaders with emotional and spiritual strength who have a clearly articulated theology and vision, the capacity for reflection and a willingness to work communally? These are the necessary attributes of leaders who want to develop multi-cultural faith communities.
B. Leaders Envision and Embody the Stories of their Communities
Articulating a second model, Howard Gardner’s Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership (1995a) suggests that leaders relate the stories integral to a community’s understanding of its life and mission.4 Gardner says: "I construe leadership as a transaction that occurs within (and between) the minds of leaders and followers" (Gardner 1995b, 34). Crucial to the telling of a particular story is whether the leader "embodies" the story, "whether the leader’s own actions and way of life reinforce the themes of a story that he or she relates" (Gardner 1995b, 34).
From his research, Gardner outlines several constant features of leadership:
the ability to construct and convincingly communicate a persuasive story;
the capacity to embody the story in one’s own life;
an understanding of the nature of one’s audience;
a willingness to invest energy in the building and maintenance of a supportive organization;
the skill to make use of increasingly technical expertise — the leader does not need to be an expert on all the details (Gardner 1995b, 35).
Gardner identifies three kinds of leaders who function within the parameters of these constants: visionary, ordinary, and innovative. Each of these leadership types has a place in the ongoing development of a community or organization. Visionary leaders are rare, only occasionally making their mark on a community. They are distinguished by their capacity to envision bold new possibilities for communities. Gardner identifies figures such as Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, Gandhi, Mother Teresa, and Martin Luther King, Jr., as visionary leaders. More common, however, are the ordinary leaders who simply relate the traditional story of their group as effectively as possible. These leaders do not really challenge the status quo of their community, but empower members through communicating the identity, values, and institutional goals in such a way that forward movement continues. Innovative leaders, in contrast to ordinary leaders, take a story that has been latent in the community and give it new attention or a fresh twist. These leaders identify stories and themes in a community’s heritage that have been neglected and bring them to the foreground as a resource for the renewal and transformation of the community’s life together (Gardner 1995a, 9-11).
With specific regard to the role of story-telling, Gardner notes the difference between addressing a story to a circumscribed, homogeneous group bound by common knowledge and values, and addressing a diverse, heterogeneous group such as a multi-cultural community. The heterogeneous group requires a rather simple (not simplistic) story defining sharp contrasts with which all participants can identify. Over time, as the story begins to be established, the leaders can flesh out a more sophisticated, multi-dimensional version (Gardner 1995b, 35).
Leaders of multi-cultural faith communities will draw from all three leadership patterns that Gardner describes. Leaders maintain the validity of the life of Jesus Christ as the foundation for the community called the church. There must be a recognition that modern leaders are only building on the visionary work of Christ. They are visionary in the sense that they maintain the biblical vision of Christ’s intention for the ekklesia. For the most part, Christian leaders are ordinary, in the sense that the stories of the Christian tradition are regularly communicated as a means of maintaining the vision, values, and goals of the founder. Leaders in multi-cultural congregations will also need to beinnovative. There is a need to revive the stories of the Old and New Testaments that depict a God who seeks after all the nations, albeit from within the context of one particular culture. There is a need to tell an old, perhaps latent, story of a God who embraces the diversity of the entire creation. And, as in Schein’s model, this story must be lived out in the personal relationships of the leaders, not just communicated in a cognitive, disconnected manner. Leaders must embody the Christian story.
III. Leaders in the Christian Context
A. Leaders Empower Multiple Ministers
In the evangelical stream of the North American church there has been great emphasis on the "church growth" model of leadership style. According to this approach, leaders of growing churches are often seen as more project- than people-oriented, more goal- than relationship-oriented, more authoritarian than team-oriented. This is referred to as the "guru" style of management. However, in describing a third leadership model, Christian Schwarz’s Natural Church Development (1996) suggests there may be confusion between the descriptions of "large" and "growing" in this model.5 According to Schwarz, the fact that large churches in particular work well with the "guru" model does not necessarily mean that growth is taking place (Schwarz 1996, 22).
In addition, Schwarz raises a concern about focusing on quantity rather than quality. Focus on quantity may mean that aspects of the communal life of the congregation suffer in the name of growth. On the basis of extensive research surveying an international range of churches that were experiencing either growth or decline, Schwarz concludes that churches that maintain a healthy corporate life are more "effective" in new conversion growth than are churches that give all their attention to "growth strategies" (Schwarz 1996, 23). In essence, an internally healthy church is more attractive than one that devotes a disproportionate amount of its energy, time, and resources to outward orientation.
From his research, Schwarz found that quantitative-oriented and qualitative-oriented leaders conduct themselves and their ministries in more or less similar terms with regards to goal-orientation and people-orientation. Where there was the most significant difference in ministry practice was in the qualitative leaders’ concern for "empowerment;" i.e., "the leader assists Christians to attain the spiritual potential God has for them" (Schwarz 1996, 22). Whereas the quantitative leaders tend to use lay workers to help the pastor or the institution achieve their goals, the qualitative leaders "equip, support, motivate, and mentor individuals, enabling them to be all that God wants them to be" (Schwarz 1996, 22).
Schwarz concludes that this empowerment model of leadership requires a spiritual self-organization: leaders must recognize their place in a system that acknowledges God as the energy behind the community, rather than human effort and pressure. Leaders realize their own empowerment as they empower others through discipleship and delegation — they no longer have to handle the weight of church responsibilities on their own (Schwarz 1996, 23). Empowering leadership also implies giving up the role of "expert" in the faith community, with its attendant power and status. This can be a frightening, but ultimately redemptive, act in itself. In empowering others, responsibility and power is distributed more equitably.
The multi-cultural congregation, in particular, requires that power be de-centralized, so that all those sitting around the table are recognized as having a valid voice, equal in value and worth to the community as a whole. This empowering model, in a sense, gives away power from the "expert" or "core group" to multiple leaders, through the equipping and discipling process. Every person has a role to play in maintaining the health of the diverse community. Ultimately the multi-cultural congregation will rise or fall based upon the sense of belonging and ownership that each participant experiences. In general, such ownership is achieved through empowered involvement.
B. Leaders Enable the Christian Alternative Community
The Christian community has a particular story of God’s redemptive activity through Christ on behalf of fallen humanity. God has chosen to bring about his continuing purposes through the church — that particular group of people who acknowledge the truth of the Christian revelation. Following a fourth model, authors Stanley Hauerwas and William Willimon6 suggest in their book Resident Aliens (1989) that "one cannot discuss pastors [leaders] and what they do until one has first discussed the church — which needs these creatures called pastors [leaders]" (Hauerwas 1989, 112). Hauerwas and Willimon express their concern about the role of the church in the modern world. Rather than seeking to make the world "more Christian," they suggest the most effective thing the church can do for the world "is the actual creation of a living, breathing, visible community of faith" (Hauerwas 1989, 47). They envisage a dynamic community, living out God’s intention, that becomes attractive to the world, rather than the church accommodating to the shifting whims of what the world "might like" about us today (Hauerwas 1989, 47).
In this context, Hauerwas and Willimon comment that the pastor’s job description is "not the sustenance of a service club within a generally Christian culture, but the survival of a colony within an alien society" (Hauerwas 1989, 115). The authors assert that all Christians are "ordained through baptism," and that there is therefore no "specialness" about pastors. All leaders in a local congregation have the responsibility of building up the congregation. In a society that "corrupts and co-opts Christians" the unique role of the pastor is to help the congregation gather the resources necessary to be the colony of God’s righteousness (Hauerwas 1989, 139).
Hauerwas and Willimon suggest that leaders in local congregations "have significance only to the degree that their leadership is appropriate to the needs and goals of the group they lead"(Hauerwas 1989, 113). They reflect Gardner’s view regarding the need to communicate the story of the organization when they say that "in our worship, we retell and are held accountable to God’s story, the adventure story about what God is doing with us in Christ" (Hauerwas 1989, 138-39). In their view, the role of the leader is to understand the story of the community and to faithfully communicate that story, with its inherent values and goals, so as to bring about the formation of both individual and corporate identity in a manner that increasingly reflects the character and purposes of God.
Leaders in multi-cultural congregations often feel a sense of "going against the flow." Not only are these congregations going against the natural human tendency to "tribalize" and function as mono-cultural communities, thus struggling consciously with inter-cultural dialogue, they are also going against the conventional wisdom of the Christian "church growth" industry. Leaders feel isolated within their own denominations where the multi-cultural congregation is often a minority voice. When congregations intentionally choose an alternative to homogeneity, they need their leaders to articulate the communal story, theology, vision and values on a regular basis. Leaders must find or develop the forms that enable this kind of community to exist. On the other hand, a church with some degree of success as an intentionally multi-cultural congregation may have a greater sense of being God’s alien people and thereby be more clearly representative of the divine vision of Revelation 7:9 ("a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb"), than is the average suburban, mono-cultural congregation.
IV. Multi-Cultural Leaders in a Christian Context
A. Leaders Embrace Diversity
In his book, Embracing Diversity: Leadership in Multi-Cultural Congregations (1997), Charles Foster reflects on his research with three multi-cultural congregations in Atlanta, Georgia.7 In this fifth model, Foster suggests that leadership in such congregations must be transformative, anticipatory, and relational. These adjectives describe the manner in which the vision of a different kind of faith community is worked out by its leaders.
Regarding transformative leadership, Foster says that leaders must nurture change because maintenance is not an option. He comments that in the congregations he studied, transition to a multi-cultural congregation began with the arrival of a new pastor with an ability to reinterpret congregational values and focus on previously latent biblical images. However, a new pastor with a new vision is not enough. An eschatological vision of acceptance and equality has to be translated into the practical redistribution of power in a more inclusive manner (Foster 1997, 118). This new vision only takes root as people begin to hear and respond to new possibilities for their congregation in the stories that their leaders articulate for them. Transformation occurs when hesitant lay people catch the pastor’s vision and stay with the congregation "through the struggle to re-envision itself" (Foster 1997, 118). The new vision must be powerful enough "to sustain the congregation through the fears experienced in the midst of often radical changes" (Foster 1997, 118). This ability "to embrace the fear of change is a major feature in the pastoral and lay leadership of multi-cultural congregations" (Foster 1997, 118).
In the course of this transformative process, leaders must have the ability to facilitate "mutual critique" (Foster 1997, Welch 1991). In Foster’s words, mutual critique "requires that members of each racial and cultural group grant the others ‘sufficient respect’ to listen, and trust enough to challenge and critique" one another (Foster 1997, 47). In emerging multi-cultural congregations it is often a long process to move beyond being preoccupied with hurting each other’s feelings, to a reciprocal candour about expectations and responsibilities, in order to discuss moral and theological strengths and blind spots (Foster 1997, 69). As Foster indicates:
Mutual critique… involves more than a rational intellectual assessment and prioritizing of another’s ideas, practices, and moral perspectives to ensure fairness, equity, and justice in congregational life. It culminates in the intensification of the spiritual ties binding one person to another, one group to another (Foster 1997, 70).
Each individual and each cultural community must come to recognize itself in the loving critique of the other as well as give and receive forgiveness where hurt and misunderstanding has occurred.
In Foster’s view, anticipatory leadership is proactive in regard to questions, issues and problems that naturally arise in the multi-cultural congregation. Leaders must reflect and prepare for possible responses. Situations or events must be seen from a future perspective — the point of destination. Awareness of the community’s future vision has priority over the memory of its history. For leaders in multi-cultural congregations there are few precedents to guide their efforts. There are few details on how to achieve their goals and few have any experience of building multi-cultural communities. It is the possibility of a new reality that carries them forward (Foster 1997, 119-120).
When Foster talks about relational leadership he highlights the need for inter-cultural dialogue. Feminist ethicist Sharon Welch challenges the notion of multi-cultural harmony when she says "the idea that there is a common interest, shared by all, reached by transcending our special interests, is fundamentally ideological" (Welch 1991, 89). This is an important critique of the multi-cultural vision because ideology is often divisive. Whose view of multi-culturalism do we take? The white/privileged view, or the coloured/disempowered view? Therefore inter-cultural dialogue must take precedence over a "multi-cultural ideology," so that an authentic process takes place. Existing institutional structures, including the church, "perpetuate oppressive, paternalistic patterns of relating," therefore people-oriented, relational, "open-minded engagement with structures and power realities" is necessary (Foster 1997, 121).
Further, Foster suggests that in inter-cultural dialogue "empathy" (as traditionally understood) is almost impossible. Can one group or individual really understand or share the perceptions, thoughts or feelings of the different other? Can men really understand the impact of childbirth upon women? Can the rich really understand the poor? The differences in background and perceptions are too deep and profound to be shared. Therefore congregational members must engage in what Foster refers to as "a suspension of expectations"8 in which cultural assumptions and perspectives are suspended, entering into the other’s world of assumptions, beliefs, and values, and temporarily taking them as their own (Foster 1997, 122). They must see, value, and feel as the other sees, values, and feels. Relational leaders facilitate processes where this suspension can occur.
Foster’s comments on transformative leadership resonate with the issues raised by Gardner and Hauerwas and Willimon regarding the leader’s ability to articulate a fresh or renewed vision of future possibilities. Foster’s comments, along with Welch’s insights on relational leadership, highlight the unique component of inter-cultural dialogue in the multi-cultural congregation, which is so dependent upon interpersonal capacity — both the desire and the ability to relate inter-culturally.
B. Leaders Enable Multi-Cultural Dialogue
In his book, The Wolf Shall Dwell with the Lamb: A Spirituality for Leadership in a Multi-Cultural Community (1993), Eric Law deals — like Foster — with the issue of multi-cultural dialogue.9 Law, however, takes a more skill-oriented approach and a deeper look at culture and power than does Foster.
To speak of leadership as if there are a set of transcendent skills and approaches valid in all cultures, says Law, is deceptive. He feels that "the definition of a leader is not the same in different cultures because how a person is expected to manage a group is dependent on the group members’ perceptions of their own power" (Law 1993, 30). On one hand, Law describes groups that have a high sense of individual power, where everyone believes she or he is equal to everyone else. In this kind of cultural grouping, the leader enables the group to accomplish its goals through consensus, volunteerism, and self-direction. On the other hand, groups with a low sense of individual power will not challenge a leader who is perceived to be an authority figure. In this cultural grouping, the leader is expected to know the gifts, interests and abilities of each member and invite them to take certain responsibilities that will enable the group to achieve its objectives (Law 1993, 31-32).
When groups continue to function from their own perceptions of leadership and group processes, Law calls this "ethnocentrism." As one example, white groups may believe that by inviting a person of colour into a committee or study group, they are being inclusive, but they deceive themselves. Law suggests that people of colour often have a low sense of individual power and place high value on collective action. Those who place a high value on collective action tend to feel isolated and disempowered when functioning in a predominantly white environment because their strength, typically, is in the group, not the individual. Law suggests, therefore, that leaders need to function in an "ethno-relative" manner. An environment needs to be created "that allows people to interact with equal power and therefore redistributes power evenly" (Law 1993, 35). This can be realized, in Law’s view, by allowing people with low individual power to caucus regularly, thereby collectively affirming and empowering their voice. Law indicates that leaders need to be trained to be more culturally sensitive and to do this kind of power analysis based upon an increased cultural sensitivity (Law 1993, 36).
Law draws a connection between the skill of power discernment and the need for a deeper understanding of the significance of the death and resurrection of Christ. Those who have a sense of their personal power must come to a place of disempowerment before the cross, where we also meet our fellow of another culture. There is no place for a power imbalance at the foot of the cross. Likewise those who lack a sense of personal power must recognize their empowerment in Christ in light of the resurrection. Law states that "the gospel commands the powerful to give up power and the powerless to endure and be faithful. Furthermore, the Gospel story empowers the powerless to take up the power to do the mighty work of God" (Law 1993, 42-43). Multi-cultural leaders need to act out of a spirituality rooted in the Gospel story. In a sense the Gospel story is a resource in a leader’s empowerment toolbox.
Law focuses on the nature of inter-cultural dialogue and the need to acquire skill and practices that enable the creation of an environment where all participants experience a sense of equality and the ability to express themselves wholly. The exercise of these inclusive, interpersonal skills flows from a spirituality rooted in the character of an inclusive, accepting God. Together these skills and inclusive spirituality provide personal empowerment within the leader ministering in a multi-ethnic environment
V. Defining the Multi-Cultural Leader
The multi-cultural congregation is a unique community in a world that constantly chooses the easiest, least vulnerable path through inter-cultural, interpersonal relations. To have a role in the leadership of a community that takes the hard way requires a particular set of attitudes, values, and skills. Volf speaks of "the catholic personality," a kind of first fruit of the eschatological new creation, the new community that Christ ushered into the realm of human existence (Volf 1995, 51). People with this broad, inclusive outlook are fundamental to the growth and development of multi-cultural congregations. In this article a number of models of leadership practice have been discussed and will inform the profile presented below.
At the outset I suggested that leaders are people with the capacity to influence the thoughts, values, behaviours, and/or feelings of others. The capacity to influence can refer to a collection of attitudes, abilities, and skills, rather than to a single ability. In building the Multi-Cultural Leader Profile below, I have drawn from the various sources cited above that are rooted in the best practice of a whole body of leadership approaches and have sought to integrate these insights into a useful assessment tool.
From Schein we have borrowed the notions of "culture-embedding" and "cognitive redefinition." From Gardner we have borrowed the importance of articulating a particular story that motivates a community, and the necessity of "embodying" that story in the life of the community. Schwarz alerts us to the importance of "empowering" leaders and building "ownership" amongst the congregation. Hauerwas and Willimon confirm the importance of communicating a visionary story rooted in the counter-cultural nature of the Christian message, a story that "enables" the alternative faith community to grow and flourish. Foster raises concerns for authentic dialogue, for mutual critique, and for the need to move forward through the fear and disappointment of change and transition, in order to "embrace" difference. Law emphasizes the importance of inter-cultural dialogue as well, but suggests the need for particular skills in "ethno-relativism" and "power analysis." Law also raises the concern for a spirituality that reflects the incarnational nature of Christ’s life, death, and resurrection, one in which we follow Christ’s example of voluntarily giving up power and privilege for the sake of God’s kingdom.
Taken together, we can apply these leadership approaches to the development of multi-cultural leaders. I suggest that these attributes in particular define the multi-cultural capacities required of leaders in multi-ethnic congregations. The characteristics that follow are really collective categories with numerous implications for practice. At the same time the characteristics are specific enough that assessment processes that would be precise and measurable could be developed from them.
A Profile of Effective Leadership for the Multi-Cultural Congregation
Leaders in multi-cultural congregations will:
Envision the eschatological reality of the multi-cultural congregation.
Through personal experience in inter-cultural settings and through study of Scripture, leaders in multi-cultural congregations reflect theologically on the manner in which the diversity of cultures impacts the nature and life of the church, thus developing a theology of diversity. Multi-cultural leaders come to see the multi-cultural congregation as an embryonic form of the heavenly kingdom. These leaders are able to construct a story of the multi-cultural congregation that conveys the multi-dimensional, relational character of God, and that redefines the conventional Western image of the mono-cultural Christian congregation.
Embed a multi-cultural vision.
Leaders in multi-cultural congregations must be able to communicate this story/vision in a manner that draws others into the process through a redefinition of group identity and dynamics and an equitable distribution of power that allows all to have a sense of ownership. This communication and redefinition will serve to embed the vision in both a cognitive and a relational manner.
Embody the multi-cultural vision.
Leaders in multi-cultural congregations must give up their leadership "power" and their "expert status" in order to develop a spirituality rooted in servanthood. Genuine, authentic, relational dialogue across cultures, as a way of life, is required to embed the multi-cultural vision in an experiential, affective manner in the heart and soul of the congregation. The manner in which leaders conduct themselves inter-culturally will have a direct correspondence to congregational life.
Embrace cultural diversity.
Leaders in multi-cultural congregations know that they continually need to understand more about inter-cultural dialogue. They know they need to move from "ethno-centrism" in their worldview to "ethno-relativism" — to hear the other fully without passing judgement. They know they need to develop a body of knowledge regarding how different ethnic groups think, act, and feel in different contexts. They know they need to understand and assess power dynamics in various groups. They know they need to develop skill in "mutual critique" — hearing and giving constructive criticism about culturally determined values and practices. They need to develop the ability to negotiate shared or mutual meanings. This growing sensitivity demonstrates respect and acceptance in the multi-cultural congregation.
Enable inter-cultural empowerment.
Leaders in multi-cultural congregations intentionally seek out skills that will enable and empower the multi-cultural vision to take root in an increasingly practical manner. They know that creating an environment in which everyone is able to interact with equal standing, assured that they are being heard, requires specific skills in inter-cultural group dynamics. They need to find or develop their own forms of interaction that will enable the alternative community to come into being — forms that suspend cultural expectations long enough for meaningful understanding to emerge. They need to develop skills in group dialogue processes whereby individuals can undergo "a readjustment in identity" in order to draw closer to Christ and to one another, rather than to a particular cultural perspective. This toolbox of inter-cultural skills will be used on a regular basis and is necessary to the free dialogue required by the multi-cultural community.
Positive Psychology is the science of human flourishing that emerged in 1998 when Martin Seligman was president of the American Psychological Association. After decades of studying depression Seligman recognized that there was no study of what is right with human beings and institutions. Seligman founded not just a science, but a movement followed by people who believe in the possibility of a better world. Positive Psychology scholars are not naive. They understand and appreciate the ills of the world. However, they choose to not dwell on them and they recognize that what is best about people and institutions deserves to be studied, revealed and enhanced. Positive Psychology has identified 3 pathways to well-being. The first is positive subjective experiences; such as pleasure, gratification or positive emotions. Positive experiences cannot create sustainable well-being alone; but we have learned a lot about the potency of positive emotions, much of the discovery stemming from the work of Barbara Fredrickson at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 
Barbara's work suggests that when we experience positive emotions we are more intelligent, more creative, have a more global perspective, and are less racially biased. In addition, while we experience positive emotions we build sustainable physical, psychological, emotional and social resources. The experience of positive emotions has so many ramifications for our workplaces that have yet to be fully explored, but we do know that being positive is a good thing. No, it's a great thing! The second pathway to well-being is positive individual traits; the enhancement of strengths. There are many types of individual strengths such as character strengths, talents, skills and knowledge. By enhancing the use of one's strengths in daily life, one can expect increased well-being. Organizations that support employees in strengths discovery and use will find that it is not only good for the individual, but for the business. Through strengths use individuals can find themselves in a state of flow where they lose track of time, become absorbed in their work and function at the highest levels of productivity. Strengths use has dramatic implications for the workplace. Sadly, Gallup surveys suggest that most Americans feel they have little opportunity to use their strengths at work. The last pathway to well-being is positive institutions. Positive institutions enable the use of positive traits which enhance positive experiences and emotions. What could be possible if workplaces became positive institutions? Part of the positive experience is finding meaning in what we do. Work is a basic human need and an ingredient for human happiness, but employers have primarily missed the opportunity to help employees see and feel the greater good behind their work experience. While most employers have a mission statement that hangs on the wall, it is rarely brought to life for employees. Human beings long for meaning in their lives. They want to belong and make a contribution. That is good news for employers who understand the power of building a positive culture. Positive psychology researchers are building a wealth of research around the concept of positive psychological capital - understanding who we are and who we are becoming. Leadership beyond Limits, LLC offers a unique and deep development experience for leaders to envision their future self and to enhance their self awareness through a study of their beliefs, strengths, relationships, purpose, optimism, confidence and resilience.
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP FROM A CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE
We have stated that our purpose in this paper is to lay the foundations strategic leadership from a Christian perspective. One of the first steps towards doing this is to outline a normative definition for a Christian Strategic Leader (CSL). As we thought about this definition, two clusters of questions arose regarding the issue of Christians in strategic leadership? Would, or should, a strategic leader who is a Christian act or make different decisions from other skilled and ethical members of the top management team? If so, why and in what way? What exactly is “adding the spiritual dimension” in this context? Would, or should, a strategic leader who is a Christian have spiritual differences from a middle manager who is a Christian? For example, would there be a difference in
Christian character or in spiritual gifting between the two? Or could character and gifting be the same and the execution different? We do not know the answers to these questions and realized quickly that attempting to answer them in any but a superficial sense would be beyond. More specific theories and concepts need to be outlined. Further, appropriate research projects should be created to test the above questions, as well as others proposed by colleagues in the. Nevertheless, we propose to begin the process by laying a 9 foundation for this research by creating a definition of CSL that could be utilized in the future. Asking these types of questions helped us more clearly understand what the genuine Christian Strategic Leader (CSL) should look like. Therefore, we propose the following definition:"Christian strategic leadership refers to the top executives of an organization who are called and equipped by God to lead the entire organization and its resources from a Christian biblical worldview to the glory of God.”In the following analysis we will examine this definition more completely, explaining and discussing each phrase. We will also present examples from the marketplace and Scripture. We invite our colleagues to test this definition and work with us to strengthen it, with the ultimate goal of refining this concept into a testable set of propositions and hypotheses. To that aim, we look forward to future collaboration with those who are interested in bringing more depth to a Christian biblical concept of strategic leadership. It is important to note that we realize there are Christians in strategic leadership roles that do not fit the definition we have proposed. In other words, just because a CEO or a member of the TMT is a Christian does not mean that he or she is necessarily a Christian Strategic Leader as we define it. The person could either be not acting in a way appropriate to a child of God or be incompetent in his or her role. This person would not be a Christian Strategic Leader (CSL) as we mean the term. While we believe it would be fruitful to explore this aspect of leadership in the future
Not surprisingly, the biblical portrayal of the nature and character of leadership is often counterintuitive and sharply distinct from the world's understanding of leadership. Rather than laying stress on innate leadership traits, the Bible portrays human leadership as something designed and initiated by God. It is both created by God and is created for God. Mankind was created to represent the authority of God and lead all of creation in glorifying God through obedience. Part of our obedience is submitting to those who are leaders over us as unto the Lord. Another part is in leading those who are placed under our care with love. When every person fulfills their role within the leadership structure that God has designed, the result is an order, harmony and wholeness that brings glory to God. While this order was disrupted when Adam abdicated his role as leader over God's creation, the last Adam has inaugurated the restoration of biblical leadership so that all who are new creations in Christ may once again obey God. In the consummation of the new creation, glorified humanity with Christ as the head will once again perfectly rule God's creation in faithful worship of the Father.VI. Conclusion
Along with other multi-cultural practitioners, both Foster and Law attach great importance to the need for leaders to develop skill in inter-cultural dialogue — to develop multi-cultural capacity. At the same time, the more cognitive approaches of Schein and Gardner serve as the foundation upon which the ministry practices are built. What ties the two orientations together, as reflected particularly in Law and Hauerwas and Willimon, is a spirituality rooted in the cross and the resurrection — the incarnational life and ministry of Jesus Christ — and a personal disposition to listen and accept the one who is different.
If the dividing wall of culture and difference has been broken down by the sacrifice of Christ (Eph 2:14-16), then the notion of the multi-cultural congregation must be possible. However, this newly reconciled humanity requires a new kind of congregational leadership: one which envisions the heavenly reality as already present and possible, embeds that possibility into the beliefs and values of congregational life, embodies the new humanity in their interpersonal, inter-cultural relationships, wholeheartedly embraces the "different-ness" of cultural diversity, and enables all voices to be heard through intentional policies and practices.
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